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Velaro and ICE Super High Speed Trains Page
Velaros today are one of the most popular tran types in super high speed class. Manufactured by Siemens Mobility these trains can also be found in many corners of the world. Since Velaro evolved from the Intercity Express (ICE) high speed range of trains, making trains closely related, both are covered on this page.

Quick menu: Velaro e320 class 374 of Eurostar *

ICE-V / R/S-VD * ICE1 (DB class 401) * ICE2 (DB class 402) * ICE3 (DB class 403) * ICE3 (DB class 406) * Velaro-D (DB class 407) * ICx * The Intercity Express concept * Velaro-E * Velaro-RUS * Velaro UK / Eurostar e320 *


Created for 4rail.net by John McKey. Pictures by Andreas Ehnberg, Focalplane, Ilkka and Sanna Siissalo, Gerard J. Putz and John McKey.




Also on High SpeedFS Bombardier built Fressiarossa 1000 at Innotrans 2014, Berlin, Germany
Super High Speed Main Page is a great place to start reading on subject! All train types and lots of other information on high speed can be found here.

SNCF TGV-Reséau unit 4523 closeup at Nissan, France
Super high speed TGV trains page has all the relevant information on these highly popular trains!


Other Interesting Subject
A drawing of the Velaro-D DB class 407 in use arriving at station Manufacturers Main page gives you access to tens of rolling stock or component manufacturers around the world.

Railjet in AustriaSiemens AG Mobility page provides knowledge of many state of the art Siemens manufactured EMUs and Locomotives.

 

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High Speed Trains 2015

Nordic Railways Recognition Guide




 

 



Eurostar e320 number 4008, U.K.

Velaro UK, Eurostar e320, British class 374
Production units of Eurostar are in the process of being partly replaced by these new trains. Each train consists of two identical halves.

Units built by Siemens Mobility: 11, 2012 - 2015
Unit numbers: 374 001 -
Maximum allowed speed: 320 km/h (200 mph)
Capacity: 902, 4 VIP, 218 business class, 672 2nd, 8 others
Electrical systems: overhead electricity 25 kV 50 Hz and 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 1500V and 3000 V DC, 16'000 kW (20'000 hp)
Usage: international high speed services


  Detailed information on British class 374...



Velaro-RUS EVS1 unit 08 in Moscow, Russia

Velaro-RUS EVS1 / EVS2 of RZD
Two classes of 250 km/h arctic version of Velaro have been delivered to Russian RZD.

Units built by Siemens Mobility: 8 + 8, 2009 - 2015
Unit numbers: EVS1-001 - , EVS2-001 -
Maximum allowed speed: 250 km/h (155 mph) due to track
Capacity: ~604, 4 different configurations, 10 modules
Electrical systems: overhead electricity either 3000 V DC (EVS-1) of 300V DC and 25 kV 50 Hz (EVS-2), ~8000 kW (10'730 hp)
Usage: Moscow - St Petersburg high speed services


  Detailed information on RZD EVS1 and EVS2...



A drawing of the Velaro-D DB class 407 in use arriving at station
Velaro-D, Deutsche Bahn German class 407
Latest Velaro sets in traffic for Germany are the class 407 EMUs. Deutche Bahn is the entry customer for this specific class of trains and started traffic in Germany in 2014. Velaro D was initilally meant to serve on international routes, and it has been observed running from Germany to Paris, France since 2015. Expect more Velaro-D units to be ordered for DB.

Units built: 17, 2009 - 2014
Unit numbers: 701 - 717
Maximum allowed speed: 320 km/h (199 mph)
Capacity: 460, 1st class 111, 2nd class 333, Bistro 16, 8 modules
Electrical systems: overhead electricity, 1500 V DC, 3000 V DC, 15 kV 16,7 Hz and 25 kV 50 Hz, ~8000 kW (10'730 hp) on AC and 4200 kW (5630 hp) of DC, 300 kN (67'445 lbf)
Usage: super high speed traffic in Germany and internationally


  
Detailed information on DB class 407 Velaro-D...


Turkish Velaro TR - HT80000 in Turkey

Velaro TR for TCDD in Turkey
Turkey ios modernizing rapidly. One proof of this is the use of 8 new Velaro TR units for national operator TCDD. First train delivered for tests was actually initially a vlass 407 DB train which was converted for Turkish requirements.

Units built: 17 (7+10), 2013 - , 8 modules per train
Unit numbers:
Maximum allowed speed: 300 km/h (186 mph)
Capacity: 516,
Electrical systems: overhead electricity, 25 kV 50 Hz, ~8000 kW (10'730 hp), 300 kN (67'445 lbf)
Usage: Turkish high speed lines


  
Detailed information on TCDD class 407 Velaro-D...




Velaro-E

Velaro-E and Velaro-E2 for Renfe of Spain
The Velaro-E (Velaro-Espana) / AVE S-103 was one of the earlies export orders for Siemens AG. The initial order in 2001 was 16 units, but this was later increased to 26. The Velaro-E is a very commong sight on the Spanish high speed network, probably on the french side as well in a few years.
         
Units built: 16 + 10 units of 8 modules, built in 2002 - 2008     
Unit classes: AVE S-103, numbers 1-26 by front side windows      
Maximum allowed speed: 350 km/h (218 mph)  
Capacity: 404, "Club" 37 seats, "Preferenta" 103, "Turista" 264
Electrical systems: overhead electricity, 25 KV 50 Hz
Usage: Spanish high speed routes

  Detailed information on Renfe class AVE S-103...




Velaro-C
Velaro-CN / CRH3 for China
The CRH-3 as Velaro is known in China has been a success story. Based on Siemens core technologies, the Chinese version of the Velaro exploits the full potential of the 360 km/h (224 mph) design speeds. The Early arriver, CRH-3 has been in many cases the first production type for the Chinese high speed lines.

Units built: 160 (80 more in order), built in 2008 - present
Unit numbers: CRH3-001 - CRH3-080, CRH380B-6201 - CRH380BL-6470L
Maximum allowed speed: 360 - 380 km/h (224 - 236 mph)
Electrical systems: all 25 kV 50 Hz overhead wire
Usage: Chinese high speed lines

  
Detailed information on CRH-3 types and units...
 

 



  Before Velaros, High Speed Trains in Germany
Almost as long as rails were laid on trackbed in Western Europe, there was also a competition for more speed and better timetables. One of the countires, Germany saw high speed steam locomotives, shuttle shaped motor cars and even a Zeppelin remainding vehicles with a huge propeller before the gradual developments lead to testing and building today's impressive high speed system.

An early test version for the ICE concept in Germany

Early History of Intercity Express Trains and ICE-V / R/S-VD
The history of the ICE-trains as we know today starts from the ICE-V (V=Versuch, trial for German) test train. This test train carried a series of high speed testing on nomral rail during its 11 year lifespan. It also competed simultaneously for money with a another German project: the Maglev. ICE-V in 1988 created a brief new world speed record of 406,9 km/h (253 mph) for the trains on normal track before the TGVs took over again.

Units built: 1, built in 1985 (for changing test train configurations)
Lifespan: 1985 - 1996, now in Museum in Munich Germany, replaces by ICE S
Electrical systems: 15 kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: To test the solutions for the super super high speed travel in Germany

   Detailed information on type ICE-V... 


ICE1 in Germany

Intercity Express 1 / Class 401 of Deutsche Bahn

The first generation production ICEs are distinctively streamlined and have a powerful locomotive at both ends. This fleet has so far gone through one major refurbishment and is due to be retired around 2020 once type ICx will enter traffic.

Units built: 60, built in 1989 - 1993
Unit numbers: 101 - 120, 152 - 190
Maximum allowed speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
Electrical systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes


   Detailed info on type ICE 1 / class 401 of DB...

ICE2 in Germany

Intercity Express 2 / Class 402 of DB

Very similar to the ICE1, the ICE2 EMU has only one locomotive, while the other end being formed by a driving trailer.

Units built: 44, built in 1995 - 1997
Unit numbers: 402 001 - 402 046
Maximum allowed speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
Electrical systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes


   Detailed info on type ICE 2 / class 402 of DB...


ICE3 in Germany

DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium

DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium


///Intercity Express 3, ICE3 M, ICE3 MF, Classes 403 and 406
ICE3 is the second generation of the super high speed trains in Germany. The train design was altered so that now a uniform set of cars was used and no locomotives were used in either end. ICE3's have several build series, each one enhanced of the previous model.

Units built: 50 + 11 + 6, built in 1997 - late 2000s
Unit numbers: 403 x01 - x37, x51 - x63, 406 x01 - x13 (text on the sides 46xx), 51 - x54, x80 - x85
Maximum allowed speed: 320 - 330 km/h (199 - 205 mph)
Electrical systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz, ICE3-M/MF (406) also 25 KV 50 Hz, 1500 V DC and 3000V DC
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes, the multi voltage units can also be seen in neighboring countries.

   Detailed information on ICE 3 type and units...


ICE3 M and ICE3 MF class 406
The first truly international ICE3 train sets were ordered by Netherlands Railways NS as type ICE3 M and and DB as ICE3 MF. Of the latter some unit were new and some rebuilt of the class 403 for the French traffic.

Units built and rebuilt: 11 + 6, 1997 - 2008
Unit numbers: 406 x01 - x13, 406 x51 - x54, 406 x80 - x85
Maximum allowed speed: 330 km/h in Germany (205 mph)
Electrical systems: 15kV 16,7 Hz, 25 KV 50 Hz, 1500 V DC and 3000V DC
Usage: All around Germany international high speed routes, mainly to France (Paris, Marseille), Belgium (Brussels) and Holland (Amsterdam), possibly later also U.K. (to London through Channel tunnel).

   Detailed information on ICE 3 class 406 type and units...

ICx of Deutsche Bahn, Germany IC4 of DB (not Velaro)
Brand new units just being tested are the ICx EMUs manufactured by Siemens and Bombardier. The design is at the moment in thorough testing after which it will start trials at customer DB. Once completed, these units will start pushing aside Intercity/Eurocity services, then replace technically aging ICE1 and ICE2 virtual EMUs. Interestingly the highest speed of ICx, 249 km/h, is somewhat lower than that of ICE1 and ICE2, 280 km/h. However, this was a conscious decision as operator plans showed this has liitle effect in running times
  Tilting High Speed ICE Trains
Class 407 Velaro-D

Intercity Express - T (Classes 411.1, 411.2, 415)
Very similar to the ICE1, the ICE2 train have only one locomotive, while the other end is formed by a driving trailer.

Units built: 71, built in 1996 -
Unit numbers: 411 001 - 032, 411 051 - 078, 411 080 - 084, 415 001 - 006, 415 020 - 024
Maximum allowed speed: 230 km/h (143 mph)
Electrical systems: all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes, Austria, Switzerland

   Detailed information on ICE-T type and units...

Class 407 Velaro-D Intercity Express - TD (Class 605)
The ICE-TD shares the outside design of the ICE-T, but is powered by diesel engine instead of overhead electricity. After solving a numerous issues, these units are finally in traffic mainly between Germany and Denmark.

Units built: 20, 19 in use, built in 1998 - 2001
Unit numbers: 605 001 - 020
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h (124 mph)
Diesel electric by Siemens and Bombardier
Usage: mainly between Germany and Denmark

   Detailed information on ICE-TD type and units...
  Velaro Units for International Traffic
Velaro-E Velaro-E of Renfe of Spain
The Velaro-E (Velaro-Espana) / AVE S-103 was one of the earliest export orders for Siemens AG. The initial order in 2001 was 16 units, but this was later increased to 26. The Velaro-E is a very common sight on the Spanish high speed network, probably on the French side as well in a few years, since Renfe is planning on providing so runs to Paris from Spain.

Units built: 26 units of 8 modules, built in 2002 - 2008
Unit classes: AVE S-103
Maximum allowed speed: 350 km/h (218 mph)
Electrical systems: 25 KV 50 Hz overhead wire
Usage: mainly Madrid to Barcelona

   Detailed information on Velaro-E type and units...

Velaro-RUS EVS1 unit 08 in Moscow, Russia


Velaro-RUS of RzD of Russia

The Velaro-Rus / Sapsan provided the first greater than 200 km/h platform for the Russian travellers. The Sapsans currently travel between Moscow and St Petersburg at the top speed of 250 km/h with another destination being Nizhi Novgorod east of Moscow. The units are built to withstand extreme weather conditions and are for example equipped with double layer car body with heated air circulating between the two layers.

Units built: 8, built in 2008 - 2009, 8 more in order
Unit numbers of the two Russian classes:
Maximum allowed speed: 250 km/h (155 mph), upgradable to 300 km/h.
Electrical systems: 4 units 3000V DC overhead wire, 4 bielectric units also 25 kV 50 Hz
Usage: Russian higher than normal speed lines (St Petersburg - Moscow - Nizhi Novgorod)

   Detailed information on Velaro-RUS types and units...
Velaro-C Velaro in China, MOR
Siemens Mobility demo train of Eurostar e320 on display in fornt of the London eye, U.K.  
  Building Velaro Units at Siemens
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany  
   
  - - - Discuss Page at trainorders.com - - -

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  ICE-V (Intercity Express Versuch)

ICE Versuch Bahn of Germany

 


While the French were in the production phase in early 1980's the West German government in 1982 decided on pushing forward a project on "concepts on the future high speed trains". Although outwardly remarkably similar to the ICE1 design, the ICE-V (until 1985 the name was R/S-VD, Ras/Schiene-Versuchs- und Demonstrationsfahrzeug) was actually a lab for testing different technologies in field. In the play was considered to be no more and no less than the future on then 150 years old passenger railroads.

Technical details of ICE-V
-> Builders: several West German companies
- Dornier
- Krauss-Maffei
- Krupp
- Thyssen-Henschel
-> Units: 1
-> Maximum design speed: 350 km/h (217 mph)
-> Power: 8600 kW max (2 x 4300 kW)

-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz -> Loco unit numbers: 410 001 and 410 002, based on DB class 120
(these numbers were later in 1989 replaced by the production
units for the ICE-1)
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous
-> Loco height: 3,82 m
-> Wind factor: 0,17 at front, very low!
-> Trailers: 3
- Trailer1: 810 001,
- Trailer2: 810 002, Deutsche Bundesbahn financed, 1st and
2nd classes plus wc
- Trailer3: 810 003, "mess" car, actually a metering car
-> Trailer height: 3,65 meters
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within train

Easy recognition guide
- This unit is currently in museum in Munich, Germany
- The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar

  - - - Discuss Page at trainorders.com - - -

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  Class 401 of Deutsche Bahn (ICE1)
ICE1 at Hamburg Altona station

  On the left: ICE1 DB class 401 is stopping at Hamburg Altoona station.
Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.



The German class 401 ICE-1 locomotives led trains form the ICE1 virtual EMUs. These feature highest speed of 280 km/h (174 mph), at the brink of the super high speed class and matching closely the first generation French TGV's speed. Just like in France the locomotives are located on both ends of the train, but in Germany the units can not be run in multiple. But would you really have a need to run in multiple a train with 14 cars?

Unlike the French articulated (for safety reasons) building the structure was designed so that trailers could easily be added or removed from the consist, so every car has it's own bogies. This design has both advantages and disadvantages, the main issues being flexibility and safety.

The ICE1 trains have been a success story for their operator Deutsche Bahn, although the nonarticulated structure has also meant added danger to the passengers when accidents happened for example due to the failure of an axle. Therefore the axles of all rail vehicles in Germany are currently inspected on regular base and defective axles changed before any real danger occurs.

The ICE1 train sets class 801 - 804  14 trailers have so far gone through one major refurbishing phase. The train sets are to be phased out by year 2020, replaced by the ICx units EMUs that run slightly slower.


Technical details of ICE1 / DB class 401
-> Builders: several German companies
- ABB
- AEG 
- Henschel
- Krauss-Maffei

   - Krupp
- Siemens
-> Units built: 60
-> Units in use: 59, one unit lost in accident  
-> Maximum design speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
-> Power: 9600 kW (2 x 4800 kW) (13 052 Hp)
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz

-> Unit numbers: 101 - 120, 152 - 190
-> Loco unit numbers: 401 001 - 019, 051 - 090, 501 - 520, 552 - 590
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 

-> Unit length: 410,7 m (with 14 cars)
-> Height: 3,84 m, restaurant car 4,3 m
-> Width 3,02 m
-> Wind factor: 0,17 at front, very low!  
-> Trailers: 14,
- class 801: 1st class, 53 seats, 2 + 1 seating, toilet  
- class 801.8: 1st class, 41 seats, telephone booth, toilet
- class 802: 2nd class, 71 seats, 2 toilets
- class 802.9: 2nd class (car 7), ?? seats
- class 803: service car, 35 second class seats, 2 wheelchair places,
access free bathroom, baby chancing room, meeting room 
- class 804: restaurant car, places for 40 seated customers and
10 standing customers, the roof is higher on this car and has 
extra windows at the roof     

-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train


Easy recognition guide
->
The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar, but where the ICE1 has loco on both ends the ICE2 has one loco and one driving trailer. 



   Above left: ICE1 unit 014 stopped at the Hamburg Altoona with as sister unit on the other track. Here the classification number 401 is well visible along with the unit number 014. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.

ICE1 at Hamburg Altona station

 

  - - - Click any picture to see a larger version of it - - -

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///


  ICE-2 (Intercity Express 2), Deutsche Bahn class 402

Deutsche Bahn ICE2
Deutsche Bahn ICE1
ICE2 of Deutsche Bahn, germany

The second generation of the current super high speed trains in Germany the ICE2 shares much of the design of the ICE1 train sets, the most obvious difference being that the locomotive at the other end is replaced with a driving trailer. The distributed power was not yet introduced.

The coaches of the ICE2 trains are currently going trough a first refurbishing.


Technical details
-> Builders: several German companies
- Siemens
- ABB Daimler Benz Transportation
- AEG
- DWA, Deutsche Wagonbau
- Krauss-Maffei
-> Owner and operator: Deutsche Bahn


-> Units built: 46 locomotives, 44 "half" train sets with driving trailers
1996 - 1997
-> Units in use: 44
-> Maximum design speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
-> Power: 4800 kW (1 x 4800 kW) (6526 Hp)
-> Power to track: 200 kN
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz


-> Unit numbers: 201 - 244
-> Loco unit numbers: 402 001 - 046, 2 for spare
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous

-> Unit length: 205,4 m (with 12 cars)
-> Height: 3,84 m, restaurant car 4,3 m
-> Width 3,07 m
-> Wind factor: 0,17 at front, very low!
-> Trailers: 12,
- class 805.0: 1st class, 53 seats, 2 + 1 seating, toilet
- class 805.3: 1st class, 52 seats, smoking allowed in 21
- class 806.0: 2nd class, 63 seats, 2 toilets
- class 806.3: 2nd class, 74 smokers seats
- class 807.0: service car, places for 40 seated customers in
restaurant, 15 standing places in Bistro
- class 808.0: driving trailer, 2nd class, 52 seats


-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 

Easy recognition guide
- The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar, but where the ICE1 has loco on both ends the ICE2 has one loco and one driving trailer.

  - - - Click any picture to see a larger version on it! - - -
   

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  ICE-3 (Intercity Express 3), Deutsche Bahn classes 403 and 406

DB ICE3 class 403 unit 010 stopping in Köln, Germany
DB ICE3 class 403 unit 554 with football vinyls stopping in Köln, Germany
DB ICE3 class 403 unit 554 with football vinyls stopping in Köln, Germany

ICE3 class 403
The ICE3 class 403 is the third generation super high speed model for Germany. Like with earlier units, this type was also built by the consortium of train builders, this time world wide. Two separate orders were commissioned so there are two slightly different series of trains. Some of the units were later converted to 406 (ICE3 MF) for international use for routes from Germany to France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands.


German Class 404 ICE3M Technical Details

-> Type: ICE3 by Adtranz/Bombardier, Siemens-DUEWAG, Alstom-LHB
-> Class / Baureihe: 403
-> Delivered to use: 1997 - 2005
-> Operated by: Deutsche Bahn AG
-> Number of units: 50
-> Number series: 403 x01 - x37, x51 - x63
-> Configuration: 8 car EMU, Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2' +2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'
Powered bogies throughout the train
-> Capacity: (1st series / 2nd series)
-- 1 st class: 98 / 98
-- 2 nd class: 356 / 362
-- Buffet car:

-> Unit length: 200,8 meters
-> Max. height: 3,89 m
-> Width: 2,95 m
-> Unit power: 16 x 500 kW = 8000 kW (10730 Hp)
-> Continuous tractive effort: 300 kN
Electrical systems for: AC 15 kV/16,7 Hz
-> Operational max. speed: 330 km/h (205 Mph)

Other:
-> heated, air conditioned and pressure controlled environment for the passengers and train service personnel.
-> There has been one renovation to most units.
-> Some unit were converted to class 406.


Easy recognition guide

-> white with red line on sides and nose
-> more futuristic design than the ICE1/ICE2
-> Top running lights UNDER the windscreen (to separate from ICE-T)
-> Aerodynamic well visible rounded housing on the roofs of cars to hide the technology from the air current.





- - - Click any picture to see a larger version on it! - - -

DB ICE3 class 403 unit 010 stopping in Köln, Germany DB ICE3 class 403 unit 010 stopping in Köln, Germany
   
   

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