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 4rail.net - Super High Speed Trains - ICE's and Velaros    
Welcome to the Intercity Express and Velaro theme page! Velaro is the best selling super high speed trains family for the world while ICE is used in Germany.    

Created for 4rail.net by John McKey. Pictures by Ilkka Siissalo, Sanna Siissalo, John McKey and Jouni Rautiainen.


 Also on High Speed  

Super High Speed News provides you the newest happenings and trends in the super fast railroading. 
     

A TGV and AGV Theme Page provides information on these most succesfull super high speed trains.
   
 
 
See the Velaro & ICE 1,2,3 Page for these Siemens prides!


The Virgin Trains Pendolino class 390 is one of the many pendolinos found on the 4rail.net Pendolino page.  
   

It all started from Japan in 1964 with the first bullet train. See what the latest Shinkansens have to offer for the world! 
   

The Eurostars use the Channel Tunnel connect the U.K. to the mainland Europe. 
 

The Chinese CHR program is the most advanced  in the world and China will be the world leader in super high speed trains usage in just a few years.


One of the always popular trains is the Russian super high speed test train Sokol. While Sokol was a product in the wrong time period, the Russia today has an impressive high speed program starting.


Maglev of Germany and China starts the new generation of floating on the rail, the new comfort level of travelling!   



 ICE-V / R/S-VD * ICE1 * ICE2 * ICE3 class 406 * ICE3 / Velaro-D Class 407 * ICE-T * ICE-TD * Velaro-E in Spain * Velaro CRH-3 in China * Velaro-RUS / Sapsan * Velaro e320 for Eurostar       
Below ICEs and Velaros are sorted in near order of appearance or logical groups. Click any types picture to see more information or the larger version of the picture! Most of the subjects have a lot of extra information available.  

 Early History of the High Speed Lines 

The high speed railways development started in Germany almost hundred years before many other countries. Although the focus was lost due to German wars, the 1980's saw a start for quick revival of development and the results of this started to show only 5 years later...   
    

   Information on High Speed Lines... 
 Early History of Intercity Express Trains and ICE-V / R/S-VD   
The history of the ICE-trains as we know today starts from the ICE-V (V=Versuch, trial for German) test train. The test train carried a series of test during it's 11 year lifespan competing simultaneously for money with a another German project: the Maglev. ICE-V also created a brief new world speed record for the trains on normal track before the TGV's took over again.
   
Units built: 1, built in 1985 (for the test train configurations change)  
Lifespan: 1985 - 1996, now in Museum in Munich Germany   
Electrical systems: 15 kV 16,7 Hz  
Usage: To test the solutions for the super high speed travel in Germany 
 
   Detailed information on ICE-V type... 
 Intercity Express 1 / Class 401 of Deutsche Bahn 
The first generation production ICE's are assigned number 1. These are distinctively streamlined and have a locomotive at both ends. This fleet has so far gone through one major refurbishment.    
   
Units built: 60, built in 1989 - 1993   
Unit numbers: 101 - 120, 152 - 190 
Maximum allowed speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes
 
   Detailed information on ICE 1 type and units... 
     
 Intercity Express 2 / Class 402 of DB
Very similar to the ICE1, the ICE2 train have only one locomotive, while the other end is formed by a driving trailer.     
   
Units built: 44, built in 1995 - 1997   
Unit numbers:  402 001 - 402 046      
Maximum allowed speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes
 
   Detailed information on ICE 2 type and units...    
 ICES


ICE3 in Munich, Germany

DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium

 Intercity Express 3, ICE3 M, ICE3 MF, Classes 403 and 406 
ICE3 is the second generation of the super high speed trains in Germany. The train design was altered so that now a uniform set of cars was used and no locomotives were used in either end. ICE3's had several build series, each one enhanced of the previous model.  
   
Units built: 50 + 11 + 6, built in 1997 - late 2000s     
Unit numbers:  403 x01 - x37, x51 - x63, 406 x01 - x13, 51 - x54, x80 - x85       
Maximum allowed speed: 320 - 330 km/h (199 - 205 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 15kV 16,7 Hz, ICE3-M/MF (406) also 25 KV 50 Hz, 1500 V DC and 3000V DC  
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes, the multivoltage units can also be seen in neigboring countries
 
   Detailed information on ICE 3 type and units... 
   
   
 ICE3 M and ICE3 MF class 406  
The first truly international ICE3 trainsets were ordered by Netherlands Railways NS as type ICE3 M and and DB as ICE3 MF. Of the latter some unit were new and some rebuilt of the class 403 for the French traffic. 
   
Units built and rebuilt: 11 + 6, 1997 - 2008    
Unit numbers:  406 x01 - x13, 406 x51 - x54, 406 x80 - x85       
Maximum allowed speed: 330 km/h in Germany (205 mph)  
Electrical systems
15kV 16,7 Hz, 25 KV 50 Hz, 1500 V DC and 3000V DC  
Usage: All around Germany international high speed routes, mainly to France (Paris, Marseille), Belgium (Brussels) and Holland (Amsterdam), possibly later also U.K. (to London through Channel tunnel).


   Detailed information on ICE 3 CLASS 406 type and units... 
       
   
 ICE3 class 407 / Velaro D
The newest Velaro trainsets will be allocated mostly on the Deutsche Bahn's international routes from Germany: France, Belgium and Holland, possible even U.K. depending on the outcome of the Channel Tunnel safety rules revisions. The new trains are thoroughly improved from the prevoius generations, although the outside appearance remains strikingly similar at first looks.

Units built: 15, 2010 - current production model    
Unit numbers:  407 x01 -        
Maximum allowed speed: 320 km/h (199 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 15kV 16,7 Hz, 25 KV 50 Hz, 1500 V DC and 3000V DC  
Usage: All around Germany international high speed routes, mainly to France (Paris, Marseille), Belgium (Brussels) and Holland (Amsterdam), possibly U.K. (London).
   
   Detailed information on Velaro-D Class 407 type and units...  
    
 Intercity Express - T (Classes 411.1, 411.2, 415) 
Very similar to the ICE1, the ICE2 train have only one locomotive, while the other end is formed by a driving trailer.     
   
Units built: 71, built in 1996 -   
Unit numbers:  
411 001 - 032, 411 051 - 078, 411 080 - 084, 415 001 - 006, 415 020 - 024  
Maximum allowed speed: 230 km/h 
(143 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 15kV 16,7 Hz
Usage: All around Germany on High Speed routes, Austria, Switzerland  
 
   Detailed information on ICE-T type and units...   
 Intercity Express - TD (Class 605)  
The ICE-TD shares the ourside design of the ICE-T, but is powered by diesel engine instead of overhead electricity. After solving a numerous iissues, these units are fianlly in traffic mainly between Germany and Denmark.
   
Units built: 20, 19 in use, built in 1998 - 2001   
Unit numbers:  
605 001 - 020
Maximum allowed speed: 200 km/h 
(124 mph)  
Diesel electric by Siemens and Bombardier
Usage: mainly between Germany and Denmark   
 
   Detailed information on ICE-TD type and units... 
 Building ICE3/Velaro units
 We will bring the Velaro / ICE 3 building story with pictures to you soon.

 Velaros for the Export Markets 
 Velaro-E of Spain, Renfe
The Velaro-E (Velaro-Espana) / AVE S-103 was one of the earlies export orders for Siemens AG. The initial order in 2001 was 16 units, but this was later increased to 26. The Velaro-E is a very commong sight on the Spanish high speed network, probably on the french side as well in a few years.
         
Units built: 26 units of 8 modules, built in 2002 - 2008     
Unit classes: AVE S-103      
Maximum allowed speed: 350 km/h (218 mph)  
Electrical systems:
25 KV 50 Hz overhead wire
Usage: mainly Madrid to Barcelona   
     
   Detailed information on Velaro-E type and units... 
 Velaro Rus / Sapsan, RzD    
The Velaro-Rus / Sapsan provided the first greater than 200 km/h platform for the Russian travellers. The Sapsans currently travel between Moscow and St Petersburg at the top speed of 250 km/h whith another destination being Nizhi Novgorod east of Moscow. The units are built to withstand extreme weather conditions and are for example equipped with  double layer carbody with heated air circulating between the two layers. 
     
Units built: 8, built in 2008 - 2009     
Unit numbers of the two Russian classes:     
Maximum allowed speed: 250 km/h (155 mph)  
Electrical systems:
4 units 3000V DC overhead wire, 4 also 25 kV 50 Hz
Usage: Russian higher than normal speed lines (StP - Moscow - Nizhi N.)  
     
   Detailed information on Velaro-RUS types and units...
 Velaro in China, MOR 
The CRH-3 as it is known in China has been an immediate success story. Based on proven technologies, the Chinese version of the Velaro exploits the full potential of the 360 km/h (224 mph) Siemens designed platform. The CRH-3 has been in many cases the first production type for the Chinese high speed lines.
     
Units built: 80 (180 in order), built in 2008 - present    
Unit numbers: CRH3-001 - CRH3-080, CRH380B-6201 - CRH380BL-6470L   
Maximum allowed speed: 360 - 380 km/h (224 - 236 mph)  
Electrical systems
all 25 kV 50 Hz overhead wire
Usage: Chinese high speed lines 
     
   Detailed information on CRH-3 types and units...         
Siemens Mobility demo train of Eurostar e320 on display in fornt of the London eye, U.K. e320 of Eurostar 
Eurostar International Limited ordered 10 Velaro units at the end of 2010 to extend it's services to larger cities in western Germany and Amsterdam in Holland as well as to provide better realiability for it's services. The train units will be 400 meters long providing 900 seats for the passengers. As the name suggests, the production speed is initially 320 km/h (200 mph), but probably can be raised slightly later.  


Other Related Topics
  

 ...
   


 
 
     

       
     
     
 ICE-V (Intercity Express Versuch)     
   
ICE Versuch Bahn of Germany
The Intercity Verswuchs train on one of it's early test drives in Germany.  
      
While the French were in the production phase in early 1980's the West German government in 1982 decided on pushing forward a project on "concepts on the future high speed trains". Although outwardly remarkably similar to the ICE1 design, the ICE-V (until 1985 the name was R/S-VD, Ras/Schiene-Versuchs- und Demonstrationsfahrzeug) was actually a lab for testing different techologies in field. In the play was considered to be no more and no less than the future on then 150 years old passenger railroads.   
   
Technical details
-> Builders: several West German companies
   - Dornier
   - Krauss-Maffei

   - Krupp
   - Thyssen-Henschel
-> Units: 1
-> Maximum design speed: 350 km/h (217 mph)
-> Power: 8600 kW max (2 x 4300 kW)
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz

-> Loco unit numbers: 410 001 and 410 002, based on DB class 120 
       (these numbers were later in 1989 replaced by the production 
        units for the ICE-1)
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 
-> Loco height: 3,82 m
-> Windfactor: 0,17 at front, very low!  
-> Trailers: 3
    - Trailer1: 810 001,
    - Trailer2: 810 002, Deutsche Bundesbahn financed, 1st and
        2nd classes plus wc  
    - Trailer3: 810 003, "mess" car, actually a metering car  
-> Trailer height: 3,65 meters

-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
Easy recognition guide
  • This unit is currently in museum in Munich Germany
  • The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar  
   To the top of the page        
     
     
       
 ICE 1  (Intercity Express 1), Deutsche Bahn class 401      
ICE1 at Hamburg Altona
The ICE1 unit at Hamburg Altona station in Germany.   
      
ICE1 at Berlin Main station in Germany
Berlin Hauptbahnhof (Main station) in the evening. The evening ICE from west has just arrived.
   
A pair of ICE1 trains stopping at Hamburg Altona Station, unit 107 in the foreground.  
The development of the ICE-V train led to the manufacturing of the German class 401 ICE-1 locomotives led trains. These featured highest speed at 280 km/h (174 mph), at the brink of the super high speed class and matching the first generation French TGV's speed. Just like in France the locomotives is on both ends of the train, but the units can not be run in multiple. Also unlike the French articulated (for safety reasons) the structure was designed so that trailers could easily be added or removed from the consist, so every car has it's own bogies.
   
The ICE1 trains have been very susccessfull in their traffic, although the nonarticulated structure has also meant added danged to the passengers when accidents happed for example due to the afilure of an axle. Therefore the axles of all railvehicles in Germany are inspected on regular bases and defective axles changed before any real danger occurs.
 
The ICE1 train sets class 801 - 804  14 trailers have so far gone through one major refurbishing phase.      
     
   
Technical details
-> Builders: several German companies
   - ABB
   - AEG 
   -
Henschel
   - Krauss-Maffei
   - Krupp
   - Siemens
-> Units built: 60
-> Units in use: 59, one unit lost in accident  
-> Maximum design speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
-> Power: 9600 kW (2 x 4800 kW) (13 052 Hp)
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz
 
-> Unit numbers: 101 - 120, 152 - 190
-> Loco unit numbers: 401 001 - 019, 051 - 090, 501 - 520, 552 - 590
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 

-> Unit length: 410,7 m (with 14 cars)
-> Height: 3,84 m, restaurant car 4,3 m
-> Width 3,02 m
-> Windfactor: 0,17 at front, very low!  
-> Trailers: 14,
    - class 801: 1st class, 53 seats, 2 + 1 seating, toilet  
    - class 801.8: 1st class, 41 seats, telephone booth, toilet
    - class 802: 2nd class, 71 seats, 2 toilets
    - class 802.9: 2nd class (car 7), ?? seats
    - class 803: servicecar, 35 second class seats, 2 wheelchair places,
        access free bathroom, baby chancing room, meeting room 
    - class 804: restaurant car, places for 40 seated customers and
        10 standing customers, the roof is higher on this car and has 
        extra windows at the roof     
   
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
 
Easy recognition guide
  • The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar, but where the ICE1 has loco on both ends the ICE2 has one loco and one driving trailer.   
   To the top of the page        
     
     
     
 ICE 2  (Intercity Express 2), Deutsche Bahn class 402      
The ICE2 unit stopping in Germany.   
      
       
The ICE2 unit in Ingolstadt, Germany.  
The second generation of the current super high speed trains in germany the ICE2 shares much of the design of the ICE1 trainsets, the most obvious difference being that the locomotive at the other end is replaced with a driving trailer. The distributed power was not yet introduced.

The coaches of the ICE2 trains are currently going trough a first refurbishing.       
     
Technical details
-> Builders: several German companies
   - Siemens
   - ABB Daimler Benz Transportation
   - AEG 
   - DWA, Deutshe Wagonbau
   - Krauss-Maffei
-> Owner and operator: Deutsche Bahn
 
-> Units built: 46 locomotives, 44 "half" train sets with driving trailers 
       1996 - 1997
-> Units in use: 44  
-> Maximum design speed: 280 km/h (174 mph)
-> Power: 4800 kW (1 x 4800 kW) (6526 Hp)
-> Power to track: 200 kN
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz
 
-> Unit numbers:  201 - 244
-> Loco unit numbers: 402 001 - 046, 2 for spare
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 

-> Unit length: 205,4 m (with 12 cars)
-> Height: 3,84 m, restaurant car 4,3 m
-> Width 3,07 m
-> Windfactor: 0,17 at front, very low!  
-> Trailers: 12,
    - class 805.0: 1st class, 53 seats, 2 + 1 seating, toilet  
    - class 805.3: 1st class, 52 seats, smoking allowed in 21
    - class 806.0: 2nd class, 63 seats, 2 toilets
    - class 806.3: 2nd class, 74 smokers seats  
    - class 807.0: service car, places for 40 seated customers in 
         restaurant, 15 standing places in Bistro  
    - class 808.0: driving trailer, 2nd class, 52 seats    
   
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
 
Easy recognition guide
  • The ICE1 and ICE2 trains look remarkably similar, but where the ICE1 has loco on both ends the ICE2 has one loco and one driving trailer.   
   To the top of the page        
     
     
       
 ICE-3 M and MF class 406 of Deutsche Bahn and NS of Netherlands       
DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium
The DB ICE3M unit 4607 in Liege Belgium, a futuristic train in the matching environment! Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.

   
DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium
   
DB ICE3 class 406 stopping in Liege, Belgium
   

  
      
Class 406 was the first ICE3 type train to be taken into use especially for the international routes. The train has many design similarities with the earlier ICE3 models and some of them were infact rebuilt of the class 403 ICE3s.  
   
Technical details of the Class 406/406F of DB and NS
-> Builder: Siemens AG Mobility Division and Bombardier 
-> Owner and operator: 
   - Deutsche Bahn: 13 ICE3M and ICE3MF units
   - NS of Netherlands: 4 ICE3M units
-> Owner classification: 
   - for ICE3M > Baureihe/Class 406
   - for ICE3MF > Baureihe/Class 406F 
-> Operations area: Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands
 
-> Units built:
    - 11 ICE3M
    - 6 ICE3MF
-> Units in use: 11 + 6      
-> Maximum design speed: 330 km/h (205 mph) on 15 kV and 25 kV
    - 320 km/h in France due to flying ballast issue  
    - 220 km/h in 1500V / 3000V domain due to not enough power
        supplied by the catenary wires
-> Power:
    -  15 kV 16,6 Hz: 8000 kW
(10877 Hp)
    -  25 kV 50 Hz: 8000 kW (10877 Hp)  
    -  1500 V DC: 3600 kW (4894 Hp)
    -  3000 V DC: 4300 kW (5846 Hp)   
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 
-> Power to track: 300 kN
-> Formation: Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'
-> Electric input: 1500V DC, 3000V DC, 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 25 kV 50 Hz
 
-> Unit numbers:  
    Deutsche Bahn, M-units
     - 4601 - 4604, 4607, 4610 - 4611
       coach order: 406 001, *101, *201, *301, *801, *701, *601, *501
    Deutsche Bahn, MF-units
     - 4605, 4606, 4608, 4609, 4612, 4613  
       coach order: 406 080, *180, *280, *380, *880, *780, *680, *580
    NS (De Nederlandse Spoorwegen) 
     - 4651 - 4654, M-units  
       coach order: 406 051, *151, *251, *351, *851, *751, *651, *551

-> Unit length: 200,8 m (with 8 cars)
  - driving car lengths: 25,7 m
  - other cars lengt: 24,8 m
-> Height: 3,9 m 

-> Width: 2,95 m 
-> Windfactor: 

-> Trailers: 8,
    - 1:  
    - 2:
    - 3:
    - 4:   
    - 5: 
    - 6: 
    - 7: 
    - 8:       
   
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
Easy recognition guide
- DB white high speed livery with a typical ICE3 nose window section, with multiple real windows in the front, front end is not pointed (like in ICE T / TD).
- nose doors slide to the sides.
- If you are able to see the train numbers at the ends the train, they are 46XX-series for both operators. 


 
   To the top of the page        
     
       
     
 ICE 3 / Velaro-D / Class 407  - Building the Class 407 for Deutche Bahn at Siemens 
A drawing of the Velaro-D DB class 407 in use arriving at station   
While the Class 407 new generation ICE3 / Velaro-D train sets are being prepared for the service at Siemens, we have a  rare opportunity to share the pictures of the manufacturing process with you!

Technical details of the Class 407 of DB
-> Builder: Siemens AG Mobility Division 
-> Owner and operator: Deutsche Bahn
-> Owner classification: class 407 
-> Operations area: Germany, France, Belgium, Netherlands
 
-> Units built: 15
-> Units in use: 1 in test use, will be seen at Innotrans 2010    
-> Maximum design speed: 320 km/h (199 mph)
-> Power: 8000 kW ( x  kW) (10877 Hp)
-> Power to track:  kN
-> Electric input: 1500V DC, 3000V DC, 15 kV 16,7 Hz, 25 kV 50 Hz
 
-> Unit numbers:  to be announced 

-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous 

-> Unit length: 200 m (with 8 cars)
  - driving car lengths: 25,7 m
  - other cars lengt: 24,2 m
-> Height: 

-> Width 
-> Windfactor: 
3D planning of the Velaro-D DB class 407-> Trailers: 8,
    - 1: 1st class end car, 42 seats, 2 + 1 seating  
    - 2: 1st class: 1st class, 51 seats, 2 toilets 
    - 3: 1st class + restaurant: 18 seats, 2 toilets
            16 seats in the restaurant 
    - 4: 2nd class: 45 seats + 2 for the wheel chairs / baby trolleys,
            easily accessible bathroom, compartment for train personnel,  
    - 5: 2nd class: 76 seats, 2 toilets
    - 6: 2nd class: 76 seats, 2 toilets
    - 7: 2nd class: 72 seats, 2 toilets
    - 8:  2nd class end car: 64 seats     
   
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
Easy recognition guide
- DB white high speed livery with a typical ICE3 nose window section, with a single derivers window in the front.
- nose doors slide up and down instead of the earlier sideways opening doors. 
 
 
Picture on left: Every manufacturing process starts with careful planning. Here in the state of art virtual reality lab the controls of the newest Velaro-D are being checked for the most optimal layout.
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany 
Drawings and checking continuously the measurements are still the German talent of producing the quality products for the market. Here in plant at the Krefeld-Ueringen the orders of the new "super train" Velaro-D, street cars and other rolling stock secure the existing jobs and help to create new ones. Siemens has been very successfull in selling it's rolling stock both in Germany and everywhere abroad and is one of the the largest manufacturer of the railroad rolling stock.


Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany 
Deustche Bahn has 15 of the class 407 Velaro-D new generation train set under construction at 
Krefeld-Ueringen. 
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany

The metal parts are first welded together to larger modules which are then assemled to create an extra strong carbody. Every phase involves checking and rechecking the measurements both inside and out.




The class 407 carbody consists of around 190 aluminum profiles. Largest of these are 21 meters long and weight over 600 kilograms. These are moved aroudn with cranes to create the 120 carbodies needed to create the 15 Velaro-D train sets ordered by Deutsche Bahn.



















As quality is a very important issue to Siemens, every measurement, every seam, every part of the 10 ton weighting carbodies are checked carefully. Aluminum is the number one material on manufacturing super strong super high speed trains, as it is in manufacturing the airplanes.  



Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany   
Next phase assembling are the wires for all the high tech aboard the ICE train sets. Here seen is the nose section, where the electrical cabinets are located in the newest design of the international variant of the ICE3. 
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany   
The nose section has been strengthened to provide even greater resistance against crashes when for example being coupled or switched, but also in case of the real crash between trains (which has never happened). 
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany   
While the work continues inside, the large DB sticker is attached outside on the nose of the unit. 
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany   
The nose doors now open up and down instead the side opening doors of the previous generations. There are also numerous other improvements over the previous generations leading to ever stronger trains and better availability in traffic. 
Velaro-D DB class 407 unit taking shape at Siemens high tech facilities in Germany
Here the first Velaro-D units take shape at Siemens AG plant in Krefeld-Ueringen to be introduced first time to the public at Innotrans fair at Berlin in September 2010.  

An early scetch of the class 407 shows the most obvious main differences between the new model and the previous batch of the ICE3. The nose door opens up and down, there is no see throught the drivers compartment (the see through must have been an annoying feature to the driver) and the electrical cabinets are now at the train ends and the equipment on the roof has multiplied. Also there are significant changes to the aerodynamical design due to the new TSI crash requirements.

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 ICE-T  (Intercity Express Triebzug)     
Above: The ICE-T stopping at Munich Germany. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.  
Below: The ICE-T multiple unit is tilting noticeably on the curve.
DB ICE-T is tilting on the curve

      
  
While the ICE1, 2  and 3 trains handled much of the traffic on the  main routes, a need for high speed travel on curved and more conventional track existed too. Tilting ICE-T was created for this market segment. The type proved to be so successful that over 60 units were ultimately ordered for traffic in Germany and on the international traffic to Switzerland and Austria.
   
There are two subtypes of the train: the 5 car (class/baureihe 415) and the 7 car (class/baureihe 411.1 and 411.2) units. ICE-T means the Intercity Express Triebzug, where triebzug is Multiple unit in separation from the locomotive powered earlier generations. 
       
Technical details for the ICE-T
-> Builders: 
   - First series: Bombardier-DWA (415:11+411.1:32)
   - Second series: Siemens AG (411.2:28)
   - 1996 -  current
-> Operator: Deutsche Bahn AG
-> Units built:
   - 5 car units: 11  
   - 7 car units: 60
-> Units in use: 71    
   
-> Passenger seats:
    - 411.1: 1st class 53, 2nd 304, restaurant 24  
    - 411.2: 1st class 55, 2nd 335, restaurant 24  
    - 415: 1st class 41, 2nd 209, restaurant 24  
   
-> Maximum design speed: 230 km/h (143 mph)
-> Electricity: 15 kV 16,7 Hz
-> Power:
   - 5 car units: 3000 kW (6 x 500 kW) (4080 Hp), 200 kN  
   - 7 car units:
4000 kW (8 x 500 kW) (5438 Hp), 150 kN 
-> Pantograps: 2
    - A German standard pantograph
    - A Swiss pantograph
   
-> Unit numbers:
   - Class 411.1: 411 001 - 032
   - Class 411.2: 411 051 - 078, 411 080 - 084
   - Class 415: 415 001 - 006, 415 020 - 024     

-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous?  
-> Tilting system by Fiat Ferroviaria (now Alstom), hydraulic  
   
-> Unit length:
    - Class 411 (7 cars): 184,4 m 
    - Class 415 (5 cars): 132,6 m
-> Height: 3,91 m
-> Width 2,85 m
-> Operations weight:
     - Class 411: 402 metric tons
     - Class 415: 298 / 311 t depending on the source
-> Maximum axle weight: 15,5 tons
-> Windfactor:   
-> Formations:
    - Class 411: 2'2' (driving trailer) + (1A)'(A1)'+ (1A)'(A1)'+ 2'2'+
         (1A)'(A1)' + (1A)'(A1)'+ 2'2' (dt)
    - Class 415: 2'2' (driving trailer) + (1A)'(A1)'+ (1A)'(A1)'+ 
         (1A)'(A1)' + 2'2' (dt)
   
-> Train controls systems: Sifa, PZB 90, LZB 80/16
       The trains for Swiss traffic also have: ZUB262/121,
       Integra-Signum, Eurobalise
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
 
Easy recognition guide for ICE-T
  • Remarkably ICE3 looking design, but the easy way to make the difference is to look at the front, where the ICE-T has wedged side end windows.

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 ICE-TD  (Intercity Express Triebzug Diesel), Class 605     
DSB ICE-TD number 03 in Copenhagen, Denmark
Above: The ICE-TD stopping at Copenhagen in Denmark. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.  
Below: The bogie and the sliding door show well in this picture with the window line.
DSB ICE-TD number 03 in Copenhagen, Denmark


DSB ICE-TD number 03 in Copenhagen, Denmark
The pictures above and below show exceptionally well the structures above the ICE-TD train. Ordinarily the diesel exhaust and air intakes were both on the roof, a strange design flaw of the experienced train manufacturers, but have since been altered. 
DSB ICE-TD number 03 in Copenhagen, Denmark

  
The Deutsche Bahn also created an ICE solution for the smaller routes with  tigh curves and no electricity. A test batch of 20 trains were ordered from a consortium of Siemens, Bombardier and Fiat (currently Alstom). The units entered service in 1999 - 2001 and had some teething problems. Actually the problems were so severe, that the units of class/Br 605 were withdrawn from service in 2003. These were returned to carry people again no  sooner than in 2006 for the football championship to help with the congested traffic. Later 11 unit were leased to the Danish National Railways (DSB) for a route between the Danish capital Copenhagen and the city of Hamburg in northern Germany. DSB (Danish National Railways) has had a severe shortage of tilting diesel multiple units since the ICE4 are very late. 

Technical details for the ICE-T
-> Builders: Siemens Mobility, Bombardier Transportation,
      FIAT Ferroviaria
, 1998 -  2001
-> Operator: Deutsche Bahn AG, DSB (Danish State Railways) 
-> Units built: 20
-> Units in use: 19     
   
-> Passenger seats:
    - 1st class: 
    - 2nd class:
    - restaurant:    
   
-> Maximum design speed: 200 km/h (124 mph)
-> Power: 1700 kW (2311 Hp), 160 kN
   
-> Unit numbers: 605 001 - 020
-> Power source: Turbocharged diesel engine
-> Electrical systems: Asynchronous?  
-> Tilting system by Fiat Ferroviaria (now Alstom), hydraulic  
   
-> Unit length: 106,7 m
-> Height:  m
-> Width  m
-> Operations weight: 219 tons
-> Maximum axle weight: 15,5 tons
-> Power ratio: 10,3 kW/t
-> Windfactor:   
-> Formations:  2'Bo+Bo'2+2'Bo+Bo'2
   
-> Train controls systems: Sifa, PZB 90, LZB 80/16
       ZUB262/121, Integra-Signum
-> Couplers: Scharfenberg, including the connection within the train

 
 
Easy recognition guide for ICE-TD
-> Remarkably ICE3 looking design, but the easy way to make the difference is to look at the front, where the ICE-T has wedged side end windows.
-> The only ICE3 like design, where the pantograph is missing
-> diesel sound
-> length is 4 cars, where the ICE-T has 5 or 7 cars
-> the bogies show the tilting mechanism in the middle

  

     
Notes on Br605 / ICE-TD units     

Unit incidents, happenings and changes
-> 
     
Future  
     
   
History

 

   
     

ICE-TD in Zurich Switzerland when the trains were new. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo 2002.The ICE-TD in Rodby Denmark. Picture by Jouni Rautiainen.
The drivers pulpet on the ICE-TDICE-TD boarding passengers at Rodby
The ultra modern cockpit of the ICE-TD. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.The ICE-TD is boarding passengers in Rodby Denmark. Picture by Jouni Rautiainen.
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Refurbishing going on
down from here...
  

  4rail.net - Velaros and ICEs - Older version            

 Velaros and the ICE Family of the Super High Speed Trains      
The Velaros are the best selling super high speed trains on the market today. Velaro-E started the success in the Spanish super high speed networks, Velaro-C brought 60 super high speed train sets and their technology into reach of China, Velaro-Rus is just starting the true high speed era in Russia, another huge market for the future. The trains are also selling well in their initial home country Germany. All these succesfull Velaro trains are manufactured today by Siemens AG and derive from the ICEs of Germany, especially ICE3, but are much developed versions from this.  

The Spanish Renfes AVE train unit in the picture is one of the Velaro-E type trains capable of soon running 360 km/h (224 mph).    
     

 Need for high speed    
The ICEs and Velaros (InterCity Express trains) are the German pride to the super high speed transportation. When Japan started its high speed service with Shinkansen in 1964, the Europe was encouraged to put more effort on its own projects. France with its TGV development was to be the number one for the coming decades, Germany the second dividing its resources with two separate projects. The British had their APT project to modernize their rail travel. Even the Soviet Union started its high speed initiative with Sokol although with little success. 

   
 Early developments - divided focus 
Both Germany and France had already made smaller scale experimentation with high speed rail transportation. In Germany this meant both using traditional locomotive traction in the form of famous class 103.1 with high speed TEE and IC coaches (successfull) as well as high speed experimental class 403 "Donald Duck" EMUs (unsuccessfull). Both of these were limited to a mere 200 km/h (125 mph), so more serious development work was still needed, something Germans had been very good at earlier.   
   
The following decisions however lead to the loosing battle against the French: the German forces were (again) divided with the research of magnetic levitating train Transrapid Maglev and the use of traditional super high speed train units, the Intercity Experimental. Germany was also lacking any larger scale rail network for the super high speed travel at the time. So initially, there was a lot to do with very limited funding. Another interesting factor was that while the German rail travel in high speed TEE trains was meant for upper class, the French approach was train travel for everybody, another loosing battle for the Germans. 
 
Interestingly, the Germans officially thought long after the French had run their TGV successfully at 300 km/h (186 mph), that the conventional rail travel was limited to mere 200 km/h (125 mph) speeds! However the ICE-V (V for Versuch or testing) train of two TGV like power cars and two intermediate cars was built. The locomotives were initially in effect just traditional class 120 iron horses capable of 200 km/h and built with more streamlined design. So, it looks like the Maglev lobby almost succeeded to kill the German train industry. Today we know that also the Maglev production tracks were finally built...in and near Shanghai in China!    

   

  The ICE1 is Created 
ICE-V, despite of the lack of initial devotion and resources, was successfull and the national ICE1 project was started around 20 German producers of components. The ICE consists of class 410 power car at both ends and around 11 normal high speed coaches in between. The coaches are not articulated (like in TGV) and the insides were and still are even refurbished a very spartan looking design. But the initial ICE1 super high speed traffic got started on the German rails for real. A total of 60 units were built in the batches of 41 + 19. The ICE1s were designed for speed of up to 280 km/h (174 mph). No ICE1s were ever sold abroad although the Germans tried very hard sparing no efforts. TGV was the winner for all the firm orders.  

 
 ICE2  
An ICE2 was the next evolution step forward. Otherwise very similar to the ICE1 design, the ICE2s only had one class 402 locomotive at one end, six intermediate cars and a driving trailer (cab car) at the other end. The German National Railways ordered 44 ICE2s.



 ICE3 and Velaros 
After the now successfull ICE2s the next step was the development of a totally new concept, the ICE3. ICE3 has distributed power throughout the train and it is more of a design product than its ugly predecessors. The ICE3 was a project of German transportation giants Siemens and Adtranz (latter now part of Bombardier). Like in many cases building new train sets, the ICE3s originally had some teething problems reported by locomotive magazines. Today the Siemens ICE3s next generation design Velaro trains have finally become a very strong competitor to the French national TGV/AGV fortress by Alstom with no apparent weaknesses.  

The Velaro-S is operating in Spain with the operating speeds up to 350 km/h (217 mph) and soon the first Velaro-Rus trains will run in revenue service also in the Russian Federation (The test runs are currently on the way). The first of Chinas 60 unit CRH3s fleet (type Velaro-C) of 300 km/h are in use as well. Out of the Chinese units 3 were built in Germany and 57 are being built in China by Tangshan Locomotive.  

Picture: While Velaro trains are also sold to Russia, the design goes through rigorous testing. Here a test unit is subjected to extreme coldness of -50 degrees centigrade! 

 Special versions ICE-T and ICE-TD  
There is also a tilting version of the German ICE design, the ICE-T, which challenges the Alstom manufactured Pendolinos on the conventional lines of track. ICE-TD adds diesel powered version to the ICE family.

Where the ICE1 and 2 are meant mainly for the German national traffic, the Velaros and ICE3s and ICE-T/TD are the Paneuropean versions of the train. 

 Velaro & ICE Page Menu
  Velaro super high speed family  NEW!

  
ICE1 
  
  ICE2       
  ICE3 / Velaro EMUs  
  ICE-T  tilting electric powered EMU
  ICE-TD (leaning diesel powered 4 car ICE train)  NEW!      

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 Velaro trainsets     
 Velaro-C, Velaro-E, Velaro Rus      


The impressive face of the Velaro-Rus train for the RZD the Russian Railways. 



The Velaro-C / CRH3 train at the depot in China early 2009. 

   

 
The Velaro-E for the AVE super high speed traffic of Renfe in Spain. 


ICE3 is the third generation super high speed model of Germany. Like with earlier units, this type was also built by the consortium of several train builders, this time world wide. The ICE3 also opened direct traffic from Germany to France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands. The later ICE3 like trains are called Velaro by Siemens and have been very successfull in opening larger markets like China, Spain and Russia.     
     
ICE3 Technical details  
-> Type: ICE3 by Adtranz/Bombardier, Siemens-DUEWAG, Alstom-LHB
-> Class / Baureihe: 403 and 406, latter bicurrent version 
-> Delivered to use: 1999 - 2005
-> Number of units: 67    
-> Configuration: 8 car EMU, Powered bogies troughout the train (according to the source book every second car is powered)
-> Capacity: 
-> Operated by: Deutsche Bahn AG, Renfe (Spain), RzD (Russia), ? (China)    
-> Unit length: 200 meters
-> Unit power: 16 x 500 = 8000 kW  (    Hp)
-> Continuous tractive effort: 300 kN 
Electrical systems for:
-> Br 403: AC 15 kV/16,7 Hz
-> Br 406: 
AC 15 kV/16,7 Hz, AC 25 kV/50Hz, DC 1500/3000V  
-> Operational max. speed: 330 kph (  mph) under 15kV/25kV, under 1500/3000V 220 kph (  mph)

-> Mass, metric tons: 409t / 432t net
-> Wheel diameter:  920/830 mm
-> Coupler type: 
-> Axle weight max: 16,6 tons

-> heated, airconditioned and pressure controlled environment for the passengers and train service personnel  
   
Easy recognition guide

  • white with red line on sides and nose  
  • more futuristic design than the ICE1/ICE2
  • Top running lights UNDER the windscreen (to separate from ICE-T) 
  • Aerodynamic rounded housing on the roofs of cars to hide the technique form the aircurrent.      
 
            
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 ICE (Inter City Express) trainsets     
ICE1       


The ICE1 is unboarding business passengers under the arches of the cathedral like new Berlin Main station. The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is built by the river in the neigborhood of the German parlament. The structure is mostly steel, concrete and glass and has several levels. The tracks currently run to 2 directions at the top (in the picture) and 2 at the bottom layer forming a large cross. Picture by John McKey 2007.     


Common sight in Berlin and numerous other cities the 59 ICE1 trains and 46 ICE2 units seem to form the majority of the numerous passenger trains.  

Technical details  
-> Type: ICE1 by Thyssen-Henschel, Krauss-Maffei, Krupp, ABB, AEG, Siemens
-> Class / Baureihe: 401 (401 001 - 401 590)
-> Delivered to use: 1989 - 1996 
-> Number of units built: 60 units, 122 power units, 118 remaining after accidents, 708 wagons, all refurbished by 2009.    
-> Configuration: Power Car (Bo-Bo) + typically 12 wagons + PC
-> Capacity: 197 first class +502-506 second class passengers seats
     (after refurbishing)  
-> Operated by Deutsche Bahn AG  

-> operations area: mainly Germany  
 
-> Unit length: 358 meters for the 14 part train
-> Unit power: 2 x 4800 kW (     Hp), 2 x 4 powered bogies
-> Power to weight ratio:  
-> bicurrent versions: 15 KV 16,7 Hz
-> Operational max. speed: originally 280 km/h
   
-> Mass, metric tons: 792 t net 
-> Wheel diameter: 920/860 mm
-> Coupler type: 
-> Axle weight max: 20 tons  

-> heated and airconditioned environment for the passengers and train service personnel
 
Easy recognition guide

  • "technical" clear featured design   
  • white with red line    
  • all wagons separable with their own bogies (unlike articulated TGV/AGV type trains)  
  • separate locomotives at both ends of the train  
  • "ICE" text on the locomotives  
 
            
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ICE2       




  
   
Technical details  


-> Unit length: 205 meters for the 8 part train
-> Unit power: 1 x 4800 kW (     Hp), 4 powered bogies  
-> elctric systems for: 25 kV / 50 Hz

-> Mass, metric tons: 412 t empty 
-> Wheel diameter: 1030/950 mm
-> Coupler type: 
-> Axle weight max: ~20 tons  

-> heated & airconditioned environment for the passengers and train service personnel

Easy recognition guide

  • "technical" clear featured design   
  • white with red line    
  • all units separable with their own bogies (unlike articulated TGV/AGV type trains)  
  • ONE locomotive at either end of the train and the driving trailer at the other end  
  • Large ICE logo on the locomotive  
    
            
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ICE3 / Velaros     


The frozen ICE3 unit in Muenchen southern Germany. Picture by Ilkka Siissalo.


ICE3 is the third generation super high speed model of Germany. Like with earlier units, this type was also built by the consortium of several train builders, this time world wide. The ICE3 opened direct traffic from Germany to France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands. The later ICE3 like trains are called Velaro and manufactured by Siemens AG. These trainsets have been very successfull in opening larger markets like China, Spain and Russia.     
     
ICE3 Technical details  
-> Type: ICE3 by Adtranz/Bombardier, Siemens-DUEWAG, Alstom-LHB
-> Class / Baureihe: 403 and 406, latter bicurrent version 
-> Delivered to use: 1999 - 2005
-> Number of units: 67    
-> Configuration: 8 car EMU, Powered bogies troughout the train (according to the source book every second car is powered)
-> Capacity: 
-> Operated by: Deutsche Bahn AG, Renfe (Spain), RzD (Russia), ? (China)    
-> Unit length: 200 meters
-> Unit power: 16 x 500 = 8000 kW  (    Hp)
-> Continuous tractive effort: 300 kN 
Electrical systems for:
-> Br 403: AC 15 kV/16,7 Hz
-> Br 406: 
AC 15 kV/16,7 Hz, AC 25 kV/50Hz, DC 1500/3000V  
-> Operational max. speed: 330 kph (  mph) under 15kV/25kV, under 1500/3000V 220 kph (  mph)

-> Mass, metric tons: 409t / 432t net
-> Wheel diameter:  920/830 mm
-> Coupler type: 
-> Axle weight max: 16,6 tons

-> heated, airconditioned and pressure controlled environment for the passengers and train service personnel  

   
Easy recognition guide

  • white with red line on sides and nose  
  • more futuristic design than the ICE1/ICE2
  • Top running lights UNDER the windscreen (to separate from ICE-T) 
  • Aerodynamic rounded housing on the roofs of cars to hide the technique form the aircurrent.      
 
The ICE3 routes from Germany now reach all the way to Paris. TGV's and ICE's share the LGV-EST, the eastern super high speed track of France. Picture by Sanna Siissalo 2008, Gare du Nord, Paris.
             
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ICE-TD / German Class 605    

 
   

 



  

            
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Sources: General sources, Picture Atlas of the German Locomotives, Todays Railways Europe, the Net, Eisenbahn Journal, Siemens AG, ...


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